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Show Me Community Helpers
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Eradication of Diseases - Our World in Data
Clint Edwards. Both smallpox and rinderpest were eradicated using vaccines. The list below — based on Checchi 11 — describes the routes of transmission various infectious diseases. It allows to only vaccinate all people who came or will come in contact with an infected person, rather than vaccinating the whole population, to save money and time. This principle was successfully applied for the eradication of smallpox.
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The immediate benefit of eradicating a disease is obvious: preventing the suffering and saving the lives of people who would have been infected with this disease in the future. Therefore eradication has economic benefits in the long term as more money is saved than the eradication campaign costs. This possibility is illustrated in the schematic comparison.
The eradication of a disease has several benefits as we have just seen. But whether it is worth spending money on a disease eradication program at a given time needs to be assessed for each disease separately. There will always be other good causes we can spend money on.
These include non-health causes, other health causes, the eradication of different diseases, and even research into more cost effective tools for eradication of a disease instead of eradicating it with existing means. The scenario or intervention which brings the highest benefit needs to be assessed for each disease separately.
The only question is whether these goals are to be achieved in the present or [by] some future generation. The table summarizes some of the key facts about diseases on the eradication agenda [ Clicking on the table will open it in higher-resolution ]. Even though these are all infectious diseases, the variety of pathogens and available treatments vary greatly.
The interactive chart displays the annual number of cases of the some of the diseases discussed in this entry: it includes data for the already eradicated disease smallpox and those diseases for which eradication is underway. The last recorded case of smallpox occurred in in Somalia.
The disease was officially declared eradicated by the World Health Organization in From the invention of vaccine against smallpox by Edward Jenner in , it took almost two centuries to eradicate the disease. It was only with the establishment of the World Health Organization in the aftermath of World War II that international quality standards for the production of smallpox vaccines were introduced and the fight against smallpox moved from national to an international agenda.
Shown in the chart are the number of reported smallpox cases from until the last case in Even though smallpox had high visibility and should therefore have been relatively easy to document, the lack of an international organization dedicated to global health means the number of cases was likely much greater.
The world map illustrates the year the variola virus the virus that caused smallpox was no longer endemic in a country.
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Rinderpest is the only animal disease that has been eradicated so far. Rinderpest outbreaks in cattles used to cause devastating losses for animal farmers. The eradication efforts began in the s before the vaccine against the rinderpest virus was even available. Measures such as animal quarantine and slaughter were used to contain the disease.
The map here shows the last year in which cases of rinderpest were reported in a country. You can read more about the history of rinderpest eradication in our post here. Here we only show the chart illustrating the elimination of polio globally. We provide detailed information on polio and its history in our comprehensive Polio entry.
source link The latter feature made its distribution throughout the developing world possible, as fewer trained healthcare staff were required for its administration. In the peak year , the number of paralytic polio cases are estimated to have exceeded , but were reduced to 43 cases in — a more than ,fold reduction of paralytic polio cases. As of , wild polio virus is endemic in only three countries: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. In , 9 countries have reported samples human or environmental positive for vaccine-derived poliovirus.
Guinea worm disease is caused by Dracunculus medinensis worm. There is no vaccine against the disease, however, it can be successfully eliminated by identification and treatment all current cases of the disease. In , 28 cases of Guinea worm have been reported, these where in Angola 1 case , Chad 17 cases and South Sudan 10 cases.
You can read more about the disease and its eradication here. The process of disease eradication is always ongoing. As new treatments become available ans as we start to better understand the disease ecology new avenues open for disease eradication. There is no one defined path for disease eradication. Eradication is usually the final goal, and control of disease spread or local disease elimination is usually a more near-future goal for most diseases. On the list of diseases that could potentially be eliminated in parts of the world are yawns , rabies, malaria , measles , neonatal tetanus , trachoma, rubella and mumps.
We provide all data sources for this entry on a separate page. This article was first published in June ; last revised in October Eradication of a disease refers to a deliberate effort that leads to the permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by a specific agent. A disease can be eliminated from a specific region without being eradicated globally. Actions to prevent the disease from transmitting or re-emerging are still required once a disease is eliminated.
It is an infectious disease.