Rather, situations must be structured to foster these processes. Studies have also revealed that students, both local and international, perceive it is the responsibility of educational institutions to increase and enhance intercultural interactions. Three strategies that have been used, evaluated and proven to foster positive intercultural perceptions and relations are peer-pairing, cooperative learning and residential programmes.
Peer-pairing involves collaboration between international and domestic students who meet with regularity outside of the classroom environment. Although the original purpose of peer-pairing programmes was to assist the international student in adapting to a new environment, research has shown that these schemes have also increased intercultural interactions and enhanced cultural awareness in domestic students.
Intercultural cooperative learning strategies have also received attention in educational studies although research suggests that most students, both international and domestic, prefer to work in "their own" groups. Despite this reluctance, studies have shown that intercultural group work reduces stereotypes and increases the willingness to work with members of other groups. Classic literature on cooperative learning in ethnically diverse classrooms, though generally conducted with nationals of a single country, demonstrate good potential for these techniques to be used both to improve academic performance and to foster intercultural friendships in international settings.
Less research is available on residential programmes i. Positive outcomes include increased intercultural knowledge, more intercultural interactions and a greater number of intercultural friendships. Those engaged in evaluations of such programmes have noted that their success depends upon the integration of intercultural activities across all areas of student life, skilled and committed support persons to implement the programmes and a high level of involvement from participating students. Research that addresses the five key questions on the impact of international students has been somewhat limited, and studies that are available are almost exclusively conducted with the international rather than domestic students and confined to research in tertiary institutions.
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In response to these limitations, the following research priorities are recommended:. Guidelines for the design and evaluation of intervention programmes are also offered, and emphasis is placed on the importance of disseminating research. Finally, it is noted that New Zealand has an excellent opportunity to emerge as a leader in evidence-based policy and programme development of international initiatives, provided that commitment is made to fostering research in this area.
Over the last two decades New Zealand has moved from an "aid to trade" orientation to international education, and economic analyses clearly indicate that the benefits outweigh the costs of internationalising. There are now international students in New Zealand schools and approximately 11, in the tertiary sector.
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A study by Infometrics Consulting Ltd. With increasing numbers of international students, however, it becomes clear that economic issues are not the only relevant considerations. Educational, social, and cultural impacts are also important. The Ministry of Education commissioned this review to consider aspects of these wider impacts.
In particular, five key issues were identified for review. In short, how does the increase of international students in New Zealand schools and tertiary institutions affect local students, educational institutions and the community? The purpose of the review is to inform policy development by the Ministry and effective planning and management at the level of the institution.
The process included the identification, retrieval and review of international materials initially located through electronic data bases in psychology, sociology and education, posted inquiries to members of professional groups International Association for Cross-cultural Psychology, International Academy of Intercultural Research , search of relevant organisational web-sites e.
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Additional relevant materials were identified from these sources. Certain principles have guided the review process. Although the review is largely concentrated on materials published within the last ten years, earlier "classic" works are also cited.
Emphasis is placed on empirical work, rather than descriptive commentaries on how international education may influence individuals, institutions and communities. Distinctions are drawn between secondary and tertiary education studies although it is clear from the review that most material is based on the study of tertiary institutions. The emergent literature is patchy. On one hand, there is an abundance of studies on social interaction between international and domestic students, though undertaken primarily from the perspective of the international student.
On the other hand, there is very little material on the relationship between international students and members of the host community. And while there is extensive discussion on how international students might be used as resources for internationalisation, there are few descriptions of how this has been done and even fewer evaluations of the outcomes of these initiatives.
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The review is organised in two major parts. The first considers the social, educational and cultural impacts of international students.
It looks at the relationships between international and domestic students, education in the multicultural classroom, institutional implications of international education, and the international student in the wider community. The second part describes and evaluates interventions that maximise the benefits of internationalisation. The conclusion identifies gaps in research, suggests areas for future research development, and highlights issues relevant to educators and administrators. This section considers the social impact of international students on domestic students, particularly social contact and friendship formation.
It also reviews the related literature on stereotypes. The results of the research converge to indicate that the amount of cross-national interaction is typically low, that international students expect and desire greater contact, and that interaction with domestic peers is generally associated with psychological, social and academic benefits for the international student. Cross-cultural studies demonstrate that most international students have primary bonds with co-nationals.
One of the earliest and frequently cited classic works in this field was Klineberg and Hull's research with over international university students in 11 countries. Whether internationals were resident in Japan, France or Canada, their most regular contact was with co-nationals. The overall amount of actual contact with host nationals was slight -though students indicated that more would have been welcomed.
More recent research mirrors this finding. Similar results were also reported by Bochner, Mcleod and Lin in their more modest but often cited work on the friendship patterns of international students at the University of Hawaii. Seventeen per cent had no American friends at all. Research conducted in the United Kingdom corroborates the finding of infrequent bonds between international and domestic students. The variations in co-national preferences are influenced by a number of factors, not the least of which is availability of co-nationals.
However, the relatively lower in-group preferences expressed by Americans and West Indians suggests that native language fluency in English may facilitate cross-national relationships. Australian and New Zealand studies also reveal a low incidence of intercultural friendships e. Smart, Volet and Ang who interviewed eight international students at Murdoch University in Western Australia found that none had Australian friends.
Aston who has undertaken the most comprehensive study of international secondary school students in New Zealand also found a prevalence of co-national friendships as presented in Table 1. Although the proportion of host national friendships in this study appears even lower than that reported in overseas research, it should be noted that there are significant differences across studies that may undermine data comparability. First, the Aston study was undertaken with students at secondary schools, as opposed to tertiary institutions.
Developmental differences in students at these two levels may contribute to variability in the patterns of friendship choice. Secondly, the New Zealand research is limited to Asian students whereas most parallel studies are based on international student samples of greater cultural diversity e. The relatively high level of cultural distance between New Zealand and many Asian countries could reduce the prevalence of intercultural friendships.
Other studies with international students undertaken in New Zealand converge with these findings and reflect a preference for co-national friendships and a low incidence of interaction with domestic students. Chen and Chieng's n. The apparently low incidence of bonds between international and local students does not reflect complacency in the international group. Zheng and Berry's study of Chinese students in Canada clearly demonstrated that the students desired more contact than they actually had.
Unfortunately, to a large extent, this is not the case- often to the disappointment of international students. There is strong evidence that greater contact with domestic students is associated with psychological, social and academic adaptation. Satisfaction with host national relations and with one's social support network more broadly is also related to enhanced psychological well-being as demonstrated in Tofi, Flett and Timutimu-Thorpe's study of Pacific Island students and in Searle and Ward's work with Malaysian and Singaporean students in New Zealand.
Although there appears to be a general willingness in international students for contact with their local peers, evidence also suggests that this willingness varies over conditions. Trice and Elliott's research with Japanese students in the United States found that older students, males and degree seekers, compared to younger students, females and sojourners on a single year exchange, were more likely to desire contact with their American peers.
Gender differences in friendship seeking and success, however, are not consistent over studies. Yang, Teraoka, Eichenfield and Audas found that female international students were more likely to have meaningful relationships with host nationals in their U. Bochner, Mcleod's and Lin's classic functional model of friendship suggests that international students operate within three networks of relationships: a primary co-national network whose function is to affirm cultural identity and lend psychological and emotional support, a secondary network of host nationals to facilitate professional and academic aspirations and a third multicultural network whose function is largely recreational.
There seems to be some support of this in the research literature. Furnham and Alibhai queried students on their preferred companions for 11 different activities and found that the preference for host national contact was in three areas: help with language problems, help with academic problems, and , surprisingly, going out with a member of the opposite sex.