Or for children: learning at school or simply spending time at a playground. Kristina Lunz and Nina Bernarding, who are leading the Centre for Feminist Foreign Policy in Germany explain why a peaceful world will remain an utopia without a feminist foreign policy. A project-installation by Andrea Monras that revisits Beirut and Berlin today in relation to their similar tumultuous paths. July 04, starting 7pm and running until July Mansion- Zoukak el-Blatt Beirut, Lebanon.
Wherever they look, they will find clear evidence of its onset, in the form of plastic waste.
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Latest Publication. Environmental Justice. First published on boell. Feminist foreign policy - imperative for a more secure and just world Introduction. First Published on boell. Czechoslovakia supplied vast quantities of arms to Israel during the war, including thousands of vz. Czechoslovakia supplied fighter aircraft, including at first ten Avia S fighter planes. The Haganah readied twelve cargo ships throughout European ports to transfer the accumulated equipment, which would set sail as soon as the British blockade was lifted with the expiration of the Mandate.
Following Israeli independence, the Israelis managed to build three Sherman tanks from scrap-heap material found in abandoned British ordnance depots. The Haganah also managed to obtain stocks of British weapons due to the logistical complexity of the British withdrawal, and the corruption of a number of officials. After the first truce : By July , the Israelis had established an air force, a navy, and a tank battalion.
On June 29, , the day before the last British troops left Haifa, two British soldiers sympathetic to the Israelis stole two Cromwell tanks from an arms depot in the Haifa port area, smashing them through the unguarded gates, and joined the IDF with the tanks. These two tanks would form the basis of the Israeli Armored Corps. After the second truce : Czechoslovakia supplied Supermarine Spitfire fighter planes, which were smuggled to Israel via an abandoned Luftwaffe runway in Yugoslavia , with the agreement of the Yugoslav government.
At the invasion : In addition to the local irregular Palestinians militia groups, the five Arab states that joined the war were Egypt , Transjordan , Syria , Lebanon and Iraq sending expeditionary forces of their regular armies. Additional contingents came from Saudi Arabia and Yemen. On the eve of the war, the available number of Arab troops likely to be committed to war was between 23, and 26, 10, Egyptians, 4, Jordanians, 3, Iraqis, 3,—6, Syrians, 2, ALA volunteers, 1, Lebanese, and several hundred Saudis , in addition to the irregular Palestinians already present.
Prior to the war, Arab forces had been trained by British and French instructors. Syria bought a quantity of small arms for the Arab Liberation Army from Czechoslovakia , but the shipment never arrived due to Haganah force intervention. Jordan's Arab Legion was considered the most effective Arab force. France prevented a large sale of arms by a Swiss company to Ethiopia, brokered by the U. K foreign office, which was actually destined for Egypt and Jordan, denied a British request at the end of April to permit the landing of a squadron of British aircraft on their way to Transjordan, and applied diplomatic pressure on Belgium to suspend arms sales to the Arab states.
The Jordanian forces were probably the best trained of all combatants. Other combatant forces lacked the ability to make strategic decisions and tactical maneuvers,  as evidenced by positioning the fourth regiment at Latrun , which was abandoned by ALA combatants before the arrival of the Jordanian forces and the importance of which was not fully understood by the Haganah general-staff.
In the later stages of the war, Latrun proved to be of extreme importance, and a decisive factor in Jerusalem's fate. In , Iraq's army had 21, men in 12 brigades and the Iraqi Air Force had planes, mostly British. Initially the Iraqis committed around 3, men  to the war effort, including four infantry brigades, one armoured battalion and support personnel. These forces were to operate under Jordanian guidance  The first Iraqi forces to be deployed reached Jordan in April under the command of Gen.
Nur ad-Din Mahmud. Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi. This force consisted of five infantry battalions, one armoured battalion equipped with British Light Tank Mk VI and Matilda tanks, one battalion of sixteen pounder guns , a battalion of eight 6-pounder guns and one medium-machine-gun battalion with supporting troops.
Syria had 12, soldiers at the beginning of the War, grouped into three infantry brigades and an armoured force of approximately battalion size.
France suspended arms sales to Syria, notwithstanding signed contracts. Lebanon's army was the smallest of the Arab armies, consisting of only 3, soldiers. It crossed into the northern Galilee and was repulsed by Israeli forces. Israel then invaded and occupied southern Lebanon until the end of the war. Arab forces after the first truce : By the time of the second truce, the Egyptians had 20, men in the field in thirteen battalions equipped with tanks and 90 artillery pieces. During the first truce, the Iraqis increased their force to about 10, Saudi Arabia sent hundreds of volunteers to join the Arab forces.
In February , around tribesmen had gathered near Aqaba so as to invade the Negev , but crossed to Egypt after Saudi rival King Abdallah officially denied them permission to pass through Jordanian territory. With the subsequent armistice of 24 February and evacuation of almost 4, Arab soldiers and civilians from Gaza, the Saudi contingent withdrew through Arish and returned to Saudi Arabia. During the first truce, Sudan sent six companies of regular troops to fight alongside the Egyptians. At the last moment, several Arab leaders, to avert catastrophe — secretly appealed to the British to hold on in Palestine for at least another year.
Several hours later, Iraq and the neighboring Arab states, Egypt , Transjordan and Syria , invaded the newborn state,   and immediately attacked Jewish settlements. The initial Arab plans called for Syrian and Lebanese forces to invade from north while Jordanian and Iraqi forces were to invade from east in order to meet at Nazareth and then to push forward together to Haifa.
Israel Egypt Agypten
In the south, the Egyptians were to advance and take Tel Aviv. He proposed that the Iraqis attack the Jezreel valley and the Arab Legion enter Ramallah and Nablus and link with the Egyptian army at Hebron,  which was more in compliance with his political objective to occupy the territory allocated to the Arab State by the partition plan and promises not to invade the territory allocated to the Jewish State by the partition plan.
In addition, Lebanon decided not to take part in the war at the last minute, due to the still-influential Christians' opposition and due to Jewish bribes. Intelligence provided by the French consulate in Jerusalem on 12 May on the Arab armies' invading forces and their revised plan to invade the new state contributed to Israel's success in withstanding the Arab invasion.
The first mission of the Jewish forces was to hold on against the Arab armies and stop them, although the Arabs had enjoyed major advantages the initiative, vastly superior firepower. Initially, the fighting was handled mainly by the Haganah, along with the smaller Jewish militant groups Irgun and Lehi. On 15 May , the Egyptians attacked two settlements: Nirim , using artillery, armoured cars carrying cannons, and Bren carriers ;  and Kfar Darom  using artillery, tanks and aircraft.
The Egyptians attacks met fierce resistance from the few and lightly armed defenders of both settlements, and failed. On 19 May the Egyptians attacked Yad Mordechai , where an inferior force of Israelis armed with nothing more than rifles, a medium machinegun and a PIAT anti-tank weapon, held up a column of 2, Egyptians, well-supported by armor, artillery and air units, for five days. One of the Egyptian force's two main columns made its way northwards along the shoreline, through what is today the Gaza Strip and the other column advanced eastwards toward Beersheba. On 28 May the Egyptians renewed their northern advance, and stopped at a destroyed bridge north to Isdud.
The Givati Brigade reported this advance but no fighters were sent to confront the Egyptians. Had the Egyptians wished to continue their advance northward, towards Tel Aviv , there would have been no Israeli force to block them. In the first combat mission performed by Israel's fledgling air force, four Avia Ss attacked an Egyptian armored column of vehicles on its way to Isdud. The Israeli planes dropped 70 kilogram bombs and strafed the column, although their machine guns jammed quickly. Two of the planes crashed, killing a pilot. The attack caused the Egyptians to scatter, and they had lost the initiative by the time they had regrouped.
Following the air attack, Israeli forces constantly bombarded Egyptian forces in Isdud with Napoleonchik cannons, and IDF patrols engaged in small-scale harassment of Egyptian lines.
Following another air attack, the Givati Brigade launched a counterattack. Although the counterattack was repulsed, the Egyptian offensive was halted as Egypt changed its strategy from offensive to defensive, and the initiative shifted to Israel. On 6 June, in the Battle of Nitzanim , Egyptian forces attacked the kibbutz of Nitzanim , located between Majdal now Ashkelon and Isdud, and the Israeli defenders surrendered after resisting for five days.
From these positions, the Jordanians were able to cut off supplies to Israeli fighters and civilians in Jerusalem. The Israelis attempted to take the Latrun fortress in a series of battles lasting from 24 May to 18 July.
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The Arab Legion held Latrun and managed to repulse the attacks. The Arab Legion also took losses, losing 90 dead and some wounded up to 29 May. The besieged Israeli Jerusalem was only saved via the opening of the so-called " Burma Road ", a makeshift bypass road built by Israeli forces that allowed Israeli supply convoys to pass into Jerusalem. Supplies had already begun passing through before the road was completed, with the first convoy passing through on the night of 1—2 June.
The Jordanians spotted the activity and attempted to shell the road, but were ineffective, as it could not be seen. However, Jordanian sharpshooters killed several road workers, and an attack on 9 June left eight Israelis dead. On 18 July, elements of the Harel Brigade took about 10 villages to the south of Latrun to enlarge and secure the area of the Burma Road.
The Arab Legion was able to repel an Israeli attack on Latrun. The Jordanians launched two counterattacks, temporarily taking Beit Susin before being forced back, and capturing Gezer after a fierce battle, which was retaken by two Palmach squads the same evening. Jewish residents of Jerusalem Old City fleeing during the Jordanian offensive. The Jordanians in Latrun cut off supplies to western Jerusalem.
The Israeli forces were seriously short of food, water and ammunition. The Arab Legion fired 10, artillery and mortar shells a day,  and also attacked West Jerusalem with sniper fire.
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Heavy house-to-house fighting occurred between 19 and 28 May, with the Arab Legion eventually succeeding in pushing Israeli forces from the Arab neighborhoods of Jerusalem as well as the Jewish Quarter of the Old City. The Jews had to be escorted out by the Arab Legion to protect them against Palestinian Arab mobs that intended to massacre them. After a fierce battle in which 31 Jordanians and 13 Israelis were killed, the defenders of Ramat Rachel withdrew, only to partially retake the kibbutz the following day. Fighting continued until 26 May, until the entire kibbutz was recaptured.
Radar Hill was also taken from the Arab Legion, and held until 26 May, when the Jordanians retook it in a battle that left 19 Israelis and 2 Jordanians dead. A total of 23 attempts by the Harel Brigade to capture Radar Hill in the war failed. The same day, Thomas C. It was disputed whether Wasson was killed by the Arabs or Israelis.
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An Iraqi force consisting of two infantry and one armoured brigade crossed the Jordan River from northern Jordan, attacking the Israeli settlement of Gesher with little success. On 25 May, they were making their way towards Netanya , when they were stopped. Iraqi forces failed in their attacks on Israeli settlements with the most notable battle taking place at Gesher , and instead took defensive positions around Jenin , Nablus , and Tulkarm , from where they could put pressure on the Israeli center.
The Alexandroni Brigade then stopped the Iraqi advance and retook Geulim.