Levin and Stiva pay a visit to Anna, who is occupying her empty days by being a patroness to an orphaned English girl. Levin is initially uneasy about the visit, but Anna easily puts him under her spell. When he admits to Kitty that he has visited Anna, she accuses him of falling in love with her.
The couple are later reconciled, realising that Moscow society life has had a negative, corrupting effect on Levin. Anna cannot understand why she can attract a man like Levin, who has a young and beautiful new wife, but can no longer attract Vronsky.
Her relationship with Vronsky is under increasing strain, because he can move freely in Russian society while she remains excluded. Her increasing bitterness, boredom, and jealousy cause the couple to argue. Anna uses morphine to help her sleep, a habit she began while living with Vronsky at his country estate.
She has become dependent on it. Meanwhile, after a long and difficult labour, Kitty gives birth to a son, Dmitri, nicknamed "Mitya".
Levin is both horrified and profoundly moved by the sight of the tiny, helpless baby. Stiva visits Karenin to seek his commendation for a new post. During the visit, Stiva asks Karenin to grant Anna a divorce which would require him to confess to a non-existent affair , but Karenin's decisions are now governed by a French " clairvoyant " recommended by Lidia Ivanovna. The clairvoyant apparently had a vision in his sleep during Stiva's visit and gives Karenin a cryptic message that he interprets in a way such that he must decline the request for divorce. Anna becomes increasingly jealous and irrational towards Vronsky, whom she suspects of having love affairs with other women.
She is also convinced that he will give in to his mother's plans to marry him off to a rich society woman. They have a bitter row and Anna believes the relationship is over. She starts to think of suicide as an escape from her torments. In her mental and emotional confusion, she sends a telegram to Vronsky asking him to come home to her, and then pays a visit to Dolly and Kitty. Anna's confusion and anger overcome her and, in a parallel to the railway worker's accidental death in Part 1, she commits suicide by throwing herself under the carriage of a passing train.
Sergei Ivanovich's Levin's brother latest book is ignored by readers and critics and he joins the new pan-Slavic movement. Stiva gets the post he desired so much, and Karenin takes custody of Vronsky and Anna's baby, Annie. A group of Russian volunteers, including the suicidal Vronsky, depart from Russia to fight in the Orthodox Serbian revolt that has broken out against the Turks.
A lightning storm occurs at Levin's estate while his wife and newborn son are outdoors and, in his fear for their safety, Levin realizes that he does indeed love his son as much as he loves Kitty. Kitty's family is concerned that a man as altruistic as her husband does not consider himself to be a Christian.
After speaking at length to a peasant, Levin has a true change of heart, concluding that he does believe in the Christian principles taught to him in childhood and no longer questions his faith. He realizes that one must decide for oneself what is acceptable concerning one's own faith and beliefs. He chooses not to tell Kitty of the change that he has undergone.
Levin is initially displeased that his return to his faith does not bring with it a complete transformation to righteousness. However, at the end of the story, Levin arrives at the conclusion that despite his newly accepted beliefs, he is human and will go on making mistakes. His life can now be meaningfully and truthfully oriented toward righteousness.
Tolstoy's style in Anna Karenina is considered by many critics to be transitional, forming a bridge between the realist and modernist novel. The galleys of Anna Karenina for the April issue of Russkij Vestnik now lie on my table, and I really don't have the heart to correct them. Everything in them is so rotten, and the whole thing should be rewritten—all that has been printed too—scrapped, and melted down, thrown away, renounced , JI ".
Anna Karenina is commonly thought to explore the themes of hypocrisy, jealousy, faith, fidelity, family, marriage, society, progress, carnal desire and passion, and the agrarian connection to land in contrast to the lifestyles of the city.
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Levin is often considered a semi-autobiographical portrayal of Tolstoy's own beliefs, struggles, and life events. Moreover, according to W. The events in the novel take place against the backdrop of rapid transformations as a result of the liberal reforms initiated by Emperor Alexander II of Russia , principal among these the Emancipation reform of , followed by judicial reform, including a jury system; military reforms, the introduction of elected local governments Zemstvo , the fast development of railroads, banks, industry, telegraph , the rise of new business elites and the decline of the old landed aristocracy, a freer press, the awakening of public opinion, the Pan-Slavism movement, the woman question , volunteering to aid Serbia in its military conflict with the Ottoman Empire in etc.
These contemporary developments are hotly debated by the characters in the novel. The suburban railway station of Obiralovka, where one of the characters commits suicide, is now known as the town of Zheleznodorozhny, Moscow Oblast. Writing in the year , academic Zoja Pavlovskis-Petit compared the different translations of Anna Karenina on the market. Commenting on the revision of Constance Garnett's translation she says: "The revision Their edition shows an excellent understanding of the details of Tolstoy's world for instance, the fact that the elaborate coiffure Kitty wears to the ball is not her own hair—a detail that eludes most other translators , and at the same time they use English imaginatively Kitty's shoes 'delighted her feet' rather than 'seemed to make her feet lighter'—Maude; a paraphrase.
This emended Garnett should probably be a reader's first choice. She further comments on the Maudes' translation: "the revised Garnett and the Magarshack versions do better justice to the original, but still, the World's Classics edition Yet she lacks a true sensitivity for the language There is occasional awkwardness This is a good translation. The advantage is that Wettlin misses hardly any cultural detail.
One's choice McLean's recommendations are the Kent—Berberova revision of Garnett's translation and the Pevear and Volokhonsky version. Kent and Berberova did a much more thorough and careful revision of Garnett's translation than Gibian did of the Maude one, and they have supplied fairly full notes, conveniently printed at the bottom of the page. Turner's A Karenina Companion , although he calls their version "certainly a good translation.
Pevear and Volokhonsky Rosamund Bartlett Marian Schwartz The title has been translated as both Anna Karenin and Anna Karenina. The first instance "naturalizes" the Russian name into English, whereas the second is a direct transliteration of the actual Russian name. Vladimir Nabokov explains: "In Russian, a surname ending in a consonant acquires a final 'a' except for the cases of such names that cannot be declined and except adjectives like OblonskAYA when designating a woman; but only when the reference is to a female stage performer should English feminise a Russian surname following a French custom: la Pavlova, 'the Pavlova'.
Nabokov favours the first convention—removing the Russian 'a' to naturalize the name into English—but subsequent translators mostly allow Anna's actual Russian name to stand. Larissa Volokhonsky , herself a Russian, prefers the second option, as did Aylmer and Louise Maude , who lived in Russia for many years and were friends of Tolstoy.
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Other translators, like Constance Garnett and Rosemary Edmonds , both non-Russians, prefer the first. The novel has been adapted into various media including opera , film, television, ballet , and radio drama. The first film adaptation was released in but has not survived. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the novel by Tolstoy. For other uses, see Anna Karenina disambiguation.
Main article: Eastern Slavic naming customs. Main article: Adaptations of Anna Karenina.
Lectures on Russian Literature. New York: Harvest. Retrieved 14 October Columbus: Ohio State University Press. Women in Tolstoy.
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University of Illinois Press. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved Entry: Lev Tolstoi, Anna Karenina.
Classe, Olive ed. A contemporary Robinsonade — York, York. The polar oceans and global climate — Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom. An illustration from a edition of Anna Karenina. Judith Armstrong , University of Melbourne. It begins with one of the most famous first lines in fiction: Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.